Nephrology concerns the diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, including electrolyte disturbances and hypertension, and the care of those requiring renal replacement therapy, including dialysis and renal transplant patients. Many conditions affecting the kidney are systemic disorders not limited to the organ itself and may require special treatment. A nephrologist is a physician trained in the diagnosis and management of kidney disease, by regulating blood pressure, regulating electrolytes, balancing fluids in the body, and administering dialysis. Nephrologists treat many different kidney disorders including acid-base disorders, electrolyte disorders, kidney stones, hypertension (high blood pressure), acute kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Conditions requiring a nephrologist include: Acute renal failure, a sudden loss of renal function Chronic kidney disease, declining renal function, usually with an inexorable rise in creatinine. Hematuria, blood in the urine Proteinuria, the loss of protein especially albumin in the urine Kidney stones, usually only recurrent stone formers. Chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections Hypertension that has failed to respond to multiple forms of anti-hypertensive medication or could have a secondary cause Electrolyte disorders or acid/base imbalance Source: The Kidney Care Center

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